Geosciences Webinar Series
Title: Geological Applications Using XRF, XRD and Vibrational Spectroscopy
Date: Tuesday, November 10, 2020
Time: 11:00 AM Eastern Standard Time
Duration: 1 hour
Geological Applications Using XRF, XRD and Vibrational Spectroscopy
Characterization of geological materials, including elemental composition, chemical speciation, and phase determination, is of primary importance for assessing their natural resources as well as their exploration, beneficiation, and extraction processes for industrial needs.
X-ray techniques, including X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), have long been essential tools in geological research. Due to the relatively quick and simple sample preparation, XRF has become the technique of choice for the analysis of rocks and minerals. New generations of XRF analyzers also permit analysis of small spots down to 0.5 mm as well as mapping of a selected area of a sample. These new possibilities open up the XRF technique to heterogeneous samples where segregations, defects, or inclusions can now be determined. Coupling these capabilities with standard-less analysis allows quantification of up to 79 elements of the periodic table on selected points or areas of the sample. On the other hand, XRD measurements of crystalline materials in combination with Rietveld refinement is widely recognized as the most powerful method for quantitative crystalline-phase analysis.
Deriving chemical and structural information from the fundamental vibrations of molecular bonds, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy also find many applications in geosciences research, including identification of minerals and their polymorphic forms, differentiation from other organic and inorganic materials, qualitative and quantitative determination of structural incorporated molecules and defects, characterization of thermal maturity, etc.
In this presentation, several real-world geological applications using X-ray and vibrational spectroscopic techniques will be presented. The complementarity of different analytical techniques will also be discussed.